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Post by pmmutiti on Fri Jun 05, 2015 9:00 pm

Dr. Denham Harmon, M.D., Ph.D., first proposed a theory of aging
as the indiscriminate chemical re-activity of free radicals possibly
leading to random biological damage.

Harman’s Free Radical Theory of Aging has been considered as a
major theory of aging for more than 50 years. In 1956 Dr. Harman
proposed that the accumulation of free radicals with the age causes
the damage of biomolecules by these reactive species and the
development of pathological disorders resulting in cell senescence
and organismal aging. His hypothesis was supported by numerous
experimental studies demonstrated an increase in free radical levels
in cells and living organisms with aging

Free Radical and Oxidative Damage in Human Blood Cells.

Free radicals and oxidative damage play important roles in aging and many
degenerative disorders such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and Alzheimer
disease. Antioxidants can alleviate some of the harmful effects of oxidative
damage. In this report, we describe that we have been using human red blood
cells (RBCs) as a model system to delineate the effects of oxidative damage on
 human cells, particularly on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-
deficient human RBCs.

Your body constantly reacts with oxygen as you breathe and your cells produce
 energy. As a consequence of this activity, highly reactive molecules are produced
within our cells known as free radicals and oxidative stress occurs. When our
protein-controlled (anti)-oxidant-response doesn’t keep up oxidative stress causes
oxidative damage that has been implicated in the cause of many diseases (see list
below on the left) and also has an impact on the body’s aging process.

Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health

In recent years, there has been a great deal of attention toward the field of free radical chemistry. Free
radicals reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species are generated by our body by various
endogenous systems, exposure to different physiochemical conditions or pathological states. A balance
 between free radicals and antioxidants is necessary for proper physiological function. If free radicals
overwhelm the body's ability to regulate them, a condition known as oxidative stress ensue

Some internally generated sources of free radicals are:

  • Mitochondria
  • Xanthine oxidase
  • Peroxisomes
  • Inflammation
  • Phagocytosis
  • Arachidonate pathways
  • Exercise
  • Ischemia/reperfusion injury

Some externally generated sources of free radicals are:

  • Cigarette smoke
  • Environmental pollutants
  • Radiation
  • Certain drugs, pesticides
  • Industrial solvents
  • Ozone


Lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress genes and dietary factors in breast cancer
protection: a hypothesis

There is ample evidence supporting a causative role of lipid peroxidation in selected human cancers,
including kidney, liver and skin, and in degenerative diseases.
In experimental models, estrogen treatment induces lipid peroxidation and subsequently increases the
incidence of renal cell cancer [32,33]. Because estrogen is a risk factor for breast cancer, it has been
hypothesized, based on this model, that lipid peroxidation may be one mechanism by which estrogen
increases breast cancer risk [11].
But estrogen induces renal cancer or liver cancer in this experimental model, not breast cancer. Indeed,
lipid peroxidation may be a relevant mechanism for renal carcinogenesis, a concept that we have
proposed and that is strongly supported by experimental and epidemiological data [32-34]

In multicellular organisms, cells that are no longer needed or are a threat to the organism are destroyed by
 a tightly regulated cell suicide process known as programmed cell death, or apoptosis.

Implications of oxidative stress and cell membrane lipid peroxidation in human cancer (Spain). Cejas P,
Casado E, Belda-Iniesta C, De Castro J, Espinosa E, ...

Lipid peroxidation refers to the oxidative degradation of lipids. It is the process in which free radicals "steal"
electrons from the lipids in cell membranes, resulting in cell damage. This process proceeds by a free radical
 chain reaction mechanism. It most often affects polyunsaturated fatty acids, because they contain multiple
double bonds in between which lie methylene bridges (-CH2-) that possess especially reactive
As with any radical reaction, the reaction consists of three major steps: initiation, propagation, and
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Our brain operates much like a computer, only is capable of more than any computer could do, and
holds more  information than a thousand computers. It can recall information faster than any
processor, and does nott need a schedule to know to defrag or compact files.
Your brain is on duty 24/7, taking in everything you see, hear, smell, touch and taste. If some connections (neurons) are not working as they should new ones are formed to reroute the
communication to another connection. Millions of neurons are working throughout our bodies at all
hours of the day and night, telling us to breathe, sleep, blood to flow and even that we are not
feeling welL. http://adf.ly/TuMnV

Peter Mwaura M
Ariix Africa Team & Business Leader

Mobile: +254-727-636-872
Mobile+ WhatsApp +254-723-024-871
Forum Director
Forum Director

Number of posts : 121
Age : 41
Kenya : Nairobi
http://taslykenya.blogspot.com : http://vemmafrica.blogspot.com
Peter Mwaura Mutiti : Teaching old blood cells new tricks:
When you hear someone mention circulation you probably think of the heart and major arteries—and for good reason. Circulatory disorders such as hypertension (high blood pressure) and atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) are major risk factors for heart disease, heart attacks, and stroke.

But there’s more to it than that. With all the attention on the heart and arteries, it’s easy to overlook serious health problems affecting the smallest components of the circulatory system—microscopic blood vessels called microcapillaries, where the critical exchange of oxygen and nutrients actually takes place. If blood isn’t flowing through this web properly, it can trigger all sorts of health problems, many of which may not seem related to circulation at all.

A number of factors contribute to poor circulation as we age. Arteries and veins become stiff and congested as cholesterol and calcium plaques accumulate and restrict blood flow. Spasms in the smooth muscles surrounding the circulatory arteries and veins can also choke off circulation. These same processes also occur in our microcapillaries, reducing microcirculation and impairing the critical exchange of nutrients and gases in tissues and major organs.

This problem only gets worse as we get older because of changes in the composition and structure of blood cells. As you reach middle age, the blood starts to thicken and congeal as platelets and blood proteins make cells sticky. Plus, the spleen—the organ that removes old, damaged blood cells from circulation—begins to slow down with age, which means new, healthy blood cells are replaced at a sharply reduced rate. And to make matters even worse, as blood cells age, they become stiff and no longer appear round and evenly shaped. This makes it harder for them to pass smoothly through the capillaries. In fact, the angular, jagged shape of the old cells can damage the fragile microcapillaries even further.

Eventually, these age-related changes take their toll on the microcapillaries, reducing circulation to the tissues and blocking the flow of nutrients and oxygen. Removal of carbon dioxide and other metabolic waste products is also hindered. This leads to a slow buildup of metabolic garbage that can gradually bury the cells in their own waste products. In time, the cells, poisoned by their own metabolic byproducts, begin to waste away and ultimately cease to function altogether.

The combined effect of poor circulation and old blood contributes to a host of symptoms, including deep fatigue, fuzzy thinking, frequent infections, and lowered sex drive—all conditions usually considered just “normal parts of aging.”

If circulation doesn’t improve, it can lead to more serious conditions, such as high blood pressure, heart attack, stroke, diabetes, and arthritis. But giving your body a fresh supply of healthy blood may target all of these problems and more.
Ann Njoki : Forum assistant
Registration date : 2008-01-10

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