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THE HUMAN BODY STRUCTURE

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THE HUMAN BODY STRUCTURE

Post by pmmutiti on Sat Jul 19, 2008 7:15 pm

A shoulder-blade is not connected to any other bones – it is fixed in a body with the help of 15 muscles

A human being is quite a mysterious and unique creature. Humans have never been able to reproduce many organs, cells and tissues in technical versions – appliances or mechanisms. Facts and figures of the human anatomy still strike imagination despite the up-to-date level of scientific development.

The length of all blood vessels in a human body reaches about 100,000 kilometers. Tiniest vessels – capillaries – are not more than four micrometers in diameter.

The amount of blood in a human organism is not constant, although it does not exceed seven or ten liters.

This is definitely not enough to fill all blood vessels. Furthermore, red corpuscles are about seven micrometers in diameter, which makes it hard to imagine how they manage to flow along 4-micrometer capillaries.

Everything is normal from the point of view of physiology, though. Not all vessels are filled with blood. Some organs usually receive higher blood nutrition than others, depending on the extent of their activity.

The digestion system is very busy after dinner, which requires a very intensive blood supply. The normal work of the brain is hindered with a lack of blood in this case – that is why people feel sleepy after eating. A red corpuscle is a living cell that possesses a very elastic membrane. It simply stretches out to be able to go through smallest vessels.

A human body consists of a quadrillion of cells. A skeleton is formed with 206 bones. The shin-bone is capable of standing the axial load of 1600-1800 kilos (the weight of a car). It is also the longest bone of the skeleton – it reaches about 27 percent of a person's height. The tiniest bones of a human being form the hearing-aid – they weigh only 0.05 grams. A shoulder-blade is not connected to any other bones – it is fixed in a body with the help of 15 muscles.

Fifty percent of a bone is made of water. A human being stops growing as he or she turns 24 years of age. The growth of a young individual slows down a little at night time, but returns to the normal speed in the daytime. There are over 600 muscles in a human body. Jaw-muscles on cheek teeth may develop an effort of 72 kilos.

A human body synthesizes about 100 grams of proteins during one hour. The brain of an adult male weighs 1375 grams, whereas the female brain weighs 1275 grams. The weight of the brain does not affect intellectual capacities of a person. Only four percent of brain cells work; the rest of them are kept in reserve. About a thousand of neurons die every hour. The speed of a nerve impulse on the reflex arch can reach 120 meters a second.

Mixed food usually stays in the stomach of an adult person for about six hours. The stomach usually produces about 1.5 liters of digestive juices on daily basis. The total square of the absorbing surface of the small intestine villi makes up to six square meters. A healthy liver processes 720 liters of blood every day.

A human eye contains 110-130 million of receptors that are responsible for the perception of light, whereas only 5-7 million of receptors are responsible for the color perception. An eye is capable of distinguishing 130-250 pure color tones and up to ten million of mixed shades. An eye cannot perceive a motionless image: eyes move even when an individual looks at one and the same spot.


The bronchial tree has 24 levels of embranchment. The total number of air vesicles (alveoli) in lungs reaches 300-350 million. The total square of the respiratory surface of two adult lungs is more than 90 square meters. The share of skin-breathing makes up about three or five percent of the entire respiratory system. It may reach 30 percent under extreme conditions.

The average lifespan of a spermatozoon is about 36 hours; an ovule lives for 12-24 hours. The total distance that spermatozoa have to cover during ejaculation is about 6.3-7.8 meters. Male sex glands start functioning at the age of seven. A male body is somatically and sexually mature when a young man turns 16-19 years of age.

The psychological maturity, however, comes at 21. A woman produces about 400 follicles in a lifetime (13 follicles a year). The duration of a woman's menstrual cycle may fluctuate from 21 to 32 days.

The total number of thermal receptors in human skin may reach about 280 thousand. The minimum quantity of painful receptors is located in the area of cheeks.


Peter Mwaura M
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pmmutiti
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Peter Mwaura Mutiti : Teaching old blood cells new tricks:
When you hear someone mention circulation you probably think of the heart and major arteries—and for good reason. Circulatory disorders such as hypertension (high blood pressure) and atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) are major risk factors for heart disease, heart attacks, and stroke.

But there’s more to it than that. With all the attention on the heart and arteries, it’s easy to overlook serious health problems affecting the smallest components of the circulatory system—microscopic blood vessels called microcapillaries, where the critical exchange of oxygen and nutrients actually takes place. If blood isn’t flowing through this web properly, it can trigger all sorts of health problems, many of which may not seem related to circulation at all.

A number of factors contribute to poor circulation as we age. Arteries and veins become stiff and congested as cholesterol and calcium plaques accumulate and restrict blood flow. Spasms in the smooth muscles surrounding the circulatory arteries and veins can also choke off circulation. These same processes also occur in our microcapillaries, reducing microcirculation and impairing the critical exchange of nutrients and gases in tissues and major organs.

This problem only gets worse as we get older because of changes in the composition and structure of blood cells. As you reach middle age, the blood starts to thicken and congeal as platelets and blood proteins make cells sticky. Plus, the spleen—the organ that removes old, damaged blood cells from circulation—begins to slow down with age, which means new, healthy blood cells are replaced at a sharply reduced rate. And to make matters even worse, as blood cells age, they become stiff and no longer appear round and evenly shaped. This makes it harder for them to pass smoothly through the capillaries. In fact, the angular, jagged shape of the old cells can damage the fragile microcapillaries even further.

Eventually, these age-related changes take their toll on the microcapillaries, reducing circulation to the tissues and blocking the flow of nutrients and oxygen. Removal of carbon dioxide and other metabolic waste products is also hindered. This leads to a slow buildup of metabolic garbage that can gradually bury the cells in their own waste products. In time, the cells, poisoned by their own metabolic byproducts, begin to waste away and ultimately cease to function altogether.

The combined effect of poor circulation and old blood contributes to a host of symptoms, including deep fatigue, fuzzy thinking, frequent infections, and lowered sex drive—all conditions usually considered just “normal parts of aging.”

If circulation doesn’t improve, it can lead to more serious conditions, such as high blood pressure, heart attack, stroke, diabetes, and arthritis. But giving your body a fresh supply of healthy blood may target all of these problems and more.
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