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Post by pmmutiti on Sat Jul 19, 2008 3:19 pm

The hypothalamus is a region of the brain that controls an immense number of bodily functions. It is located in the middle of the base of the brain, and encapsulates the ventral portion of the third ventricle.

The pituitary gland, also known as the hypophysis, is a roundish organ that lies immediately beneath the hypothalamus, resting in a depression of the base of the skull called the sella turcica ("Turkish saddle"). In an adult human or sheep, the pituitary is roughly the size and shape of a garbonzo bean.

The image to the right shows these anatomical relationships in the Visible Woman (click on the image to see a larger, unlabeled image).

Careful examination of the pituitary gland reveals that it composed of two distinctive parts:

The anterior pituitary or adenohypophysis is a classical gland composed predominantly of cells that secrete protein hormones.
The posterior pituitary or neurohypophysis is not really an organ, but an extension of the hypothalamus. It is composed largely of the axons of hypothalamic neurons which extend downward as a large bundle behind the anterior pituitary. It also forms the so-called pituitary stalk, which appears to suspend the anterior gland from the hypothalamus.
The image to the right shows a frontal view of a sheep pituitary gland and hypothalamus. The posterior gland can be seen peeking out behind the anterior gland; pass your mouse cursor over the image for labels (image courtesy of Dr. Terry Nett).

The anterior and posterior pituitary have separate embryological origins. In many mammals, there is also an intermediate lobe (pars intermedia) between the anterior and posterior pituitary.

A key to understanding the endocrine relationship between hypothalamus and anterior pituitary is to appreciate the vascular connections between these organs. As will be emphasized in later sections, secretion of hormones from the anterior pituitary is under strict control by hypothalamic hormones. These hypothalamic hormones reach the anterior pituitary through the following route:

A branch of the hypophyseal artery ramifies into a capillary bed in the lower hypothalamus, and hypothalmic hormones destined for the anterior pituitary are secreted into that capillary blood.
Blood from those capillaries drains into hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal veins. Portal veins are defined as veins between two capillary beds; the hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal veins branch again into another series of capillaries within the anterior pituitary.
Capillaries within the anterior pituitary, which carry hormones secreted by that gland, coalesce into veins that drain into the systemic venous blood. Those veins also collect capillary blood from the posterior pituitary gland.
This pattern of vascular connections is presented diagramatically below. Note also the hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal vessels in the image of a real pituitary gland seen above.

The utility of this unconventional vascular system is that minute quantities of hypothalamic hormones are carried in a concentrated form directly to their target cells in the anterior pituitary, and are not diluted out in the systemic circulation.

Peter Mwaura M
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Peter Mwaura Mutiti : Teaching old blood cells new tricks:
When you hear someone mention circulation you probably think of the heart and major arteries—and for good reason. Circulatory disorders such as hypertension (high blood pressure) and atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) are major risk factors for heart disease, heart attacks, and stroke.

But there’s more to it than that. With all the attention on the heart and arteries, it’s easy to overlook serious health problems affecting the smallest components of the circulatory system—microscopic blood vessels called microcapillaries, where the critical exchange of oxygen and nutrients actually takes place. If blood isn’t flowing through this web properly, it can trigger all sorts of health problems, many of which may not seem related to circulation at all.

A number of factors contribute to poor circulation as we age. Arteries and veins become stiff and congested as cholesterol and calcium plaques accumulate and restrict blood flow. Spasms in the smooth muscles surrounding the circulatory arteries and veins can also choke off circulation. These same processes also occur in our microcapillaries, reducing microcirculation and impairing the critical exchange of nutrients and gases in tissues and major organs.

This problem only gets worse as we get older because of changes in the composition and structure of blood cells. As you reach middle age, the blood starts to thicken and congeal as platelets and blood proteins make cells sticky. Plus, the spleen—the organ that removes old, damaged blood cells from circulation—begins to slow down with age, which means new, healthy blood cells are replaced at a sharply reduced rate. And to make matters even worse, as blood cells age, they become stiff and no longer appear round and evenly shaped. This makes it harder for them to pass smoothly through the capillaries. In fact, the angular, jagged shape of the old cells can damage the fragile microcapillaries even further.

Eventually, these age-related changes take their toll on the microcapillaries, reducing circulation to the tissues and blocking the flow of nutrients and oxygen. Removal of carbon dioxide and other metabolic waste products is also hindered. This leads to a slow buildup of metabolic garbage that can gradually bury the cells in their own waste products. In time, the cells, poisoned by their own metabolic byproducts, begin to waste away and ultimately cease to function altogether.

The combined effect of poor circulation and old blood contributes to a host of symptoms, including deep fatigue, fuzzy thinking, frequent infections, and lowered sex drive—all conditions usually considered just “normal parts of aging.”

If circulation doesn’t improve, it can lead to more serious conditions, such as high blood pressure, heart attack, stroke, diabetes, and arthritis. But giving your body a fresh supply of healthy blood may target all of these problems and more.
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Registration date : 2008-01-10

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Post by lcbasso on Sun Dec 14, 2014 8:54 pm

Is my former wife,Brazilian, 40 y, 5'4" and 98 kg.


She has sleep problems (changes night/day, nowadays a lot of sleepiness and very tired); suffers from a metabolic syndrome, fat mass, glucose intolerance, high blood pressure peaks, some hypoglycemia; her breasts are big and very painfull; a major swelling (mostly feet and legs); Sweats a lot or no sweats, no matter if is hot or cold; migraines; she is with memories problems, mainly short-term, sometime acts dizzy; she has bunion and is getting worse, in fact her feet moved 7,5 to 8,5 (for her is only because the bunion, for me her feet is growing up at all) besides she has a back pain and the orthopedist said that is because a extra bone in the back – and she never noticed that (a new one?);

-Liver: Serious steatosis; Ferritin 147, Gama GT 44, TGO 66 and TGP 102.

- She always have bad numbers in prolactin, the last was 40.5.

- The T4 levels are always close to the limit, T4 free was 0.81. She uses levothyroxine sodium, 75mgc

- PCR test. 14.9 mg/L !!!

- All cancer marks were negative.

She had a RMI in 2013, they found a small cyst (3mm) on the pituitary. All doctors said it is so small to damage the pituitary. But the symptoms were there. And nowadays all symptoms are worst. She repeated the RMI, the results are below.

Thank You,

Luciano Basso

PS: I wrote this originally in Portuguese and translated very quickly, I apologize for orthographic and grammar errors.

RM SADDLE / Pituitary

Method: Examination with FSE sequences in T1 in the coronal and sagittal planes, with 1.7 and 2.5 mm in width, after administration of intravenous paramagnetic contrast (gadolinium).

Study supplemented with cuts in T2, the ESF sequence in the plan coronal.

Held FLAIR sequence in the axial plane for further evaluation of brain.


Seal cavity shape and dimensions preserved.

Compatible with a small cyst in protein content, characterized by isosignal T1 and hypointense on T2 marked measuring about 0.3 cm, interposed between the anterior and posterior lobes of hypophysis.

Posterior lobe of topography and intensity of normal signal.

Pituitary stalk centered and preserved caliber.

Suprasellar cistern free.

Optic chiasm uncompressed signals.

Cavernous sinus and opaque with no apparent injury.


Findings consistent with small cyst pars intermedia, displaying high protein content.

There were characterized changes to the inspection of a 11/07/2013.

Note: Rare hyperintense foci on FLAIR white matter supratentorial, nonspecific. Small arachnoid cyst in the fossa left middle cranial. Dig the persistence of the septum pellucidum and vergae (anatomical variation).


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Age : 42
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Peter Mwaura Mutiti : We help our members create health to achieve future with Tasly. Tasly has been a market leader in the modernization and standardization of TCM-Traditional Chinese Medicine.
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